Fertility factors reference list

Download the PDF (443 KB)

The Fertility Coalition
Last updated July 2015

This list of references reflects current evidence about the impact of parental age and lifestyle factors on: fertility; chance of success with assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment; pregnancy health; and the health of the baby at birth and into adulthood. The list also includes references relating to the fertile window in the menstrual cycle. In addition to these, many other factors influence fertility and reproductive outcomes including sexually transmitted infection (STIs), environmental toxins, diet, and exercise.


  • Cooke, Lynne, and Scott M. Nelson. Reproductive Ageing and Fertility in an Ageing Population. The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist. 2011;13(3): 161-68.
  • de Graaff AA, Land JA, Kessels AGH, Evers JLH. Demographic age shift toward later conception results in an increased age in the subfertile population and an increased demand for medical care. Fertility and Sterility. 2011;95(1):61-7.
  • D’Onofrio, B. M., M. E. Rickert, E. Frans, R. Kuja-Halkola, C. Almqvist, A. Sjolander, H. Larsson, and P. Lichtenstein. Paternal age at childbearing and offspring psychiatric and academic morbidity. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(4);432-8.
  • Lawson, Gerald, and Richard Fletcher. Delayed fatherhood. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2014;40(4):283-88.
  • Mazza D, Cannold L, Nagle C, McKay F, Brijnath B. Making decisions about fertility: Three facts GPs need to communicate to women. Australian Family Physician. 2012;41: 343-46.
  • Ramasamy, Ranjith, Koji Chiba, Peter Butler, and Dolores J. Lamb. Male biological clock: A critical analysis of advanced paternal age. Fertility and Sterility. 2015;doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.03.011.
  • Schmidt L, Sobotka T, Bentzen JG, Nyboe Andersen A. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood. Human Reproduction Update. 2011;18(1):29-43.


  • Derbyshire, E. Preparing for Pregnancy: A body weight perspective and update of the literature. Current Nutrition and Food Science. 2011;7:216-20.
  • Gesink Law DC, Maclehose RF, Longnecker MP. Obesity and time to pregnancy. Human Reproduction. 2007;22(2):414-20.
  • Hammoud A, Carrell D, Gibson M, Peterson C, Meikle A. Updates on the relation of weight excess and reproductive function in men: sleep apnea as a new area of interest. Asian Journal of Andrology. 2012;14:77-81.
  • Koepp, UM, LF Andersen, K Dahl-Joergensen, H Stigum, O Nass, and W Nystad. Maternal pre-pregnant body mass index, maternal weight change and offspring birth weight. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2012;91(2):243-49.
  • Lane M, Robker RL, Robertson SA. Parenting from before conception.Science. 2014;345(6198):756-60
  • Marchi, J., Berg, M., Dencker, A., Olander, E.K., Begley, C., Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews. Obesity Reviews 2015 ; DOI: 10.1111/obr.12288.
  • Maftei O, Whitrow MJ, Davies MJ, Giles LC, Owens JA, Moore VM. Maternal body size prior to pregnancy, gestational diabetes and weight gain: associations with insulin resistance in children at 9-10 years. Diabetic Medicine. 2014; 32(2):174-80.
  • Moragianni AA, Jones S-ML, Ryley DA. The effect of body mass index on the outcomes of first assisted reproductive technology cycles. Fertility and Sterility. 2012;98(1):102-8.
  • Tennant PWG, Rankin J, Bell R. Maternal body mass index and the risk of fetal and infant death: a cohort study from the North of England. Human Reproduction. 2011;26(6):1501-11.


  • Augood C, Duckitt K, Templeton AA. Smoking and female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Human Reproduction. 1998;13(6):1532-9.
  • Dechanet C, Anahory T, Mathieu Daude JC, Quantin X, Reyftmann L, Hamamah S, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction. Human Reproduction Update. 2011;17(1):76-95.
  • Hackshaw A, Rodeck C, Boniface S. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls. Human Reproduction Update. 2011;17(5):589-604.
  • Homan GF, Davies MJ, Norman RJ. The impact of lifestyle factors on reproductive performance in the general population and those undergoing infertility treatment: a review. Human Reproduction Update. 2007;13(3):209-23.
  • Hull MGR, North K, Taylor, Farrow A, Ford C. Delayed conception and active and passive smoking. Fertility and Sterility. 2000;74(4):725-33


  • Floyd L, Jack B, Cefalo R, Atrash H, Mahoney J, et al. The clinical content of preconception care: alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug exposures. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008 ;December:s333-s39.
  • Hassan MAM, Killick SR. Negative lifestyle is associated with significant reduction in fecundity. Fertility and Sterility. 2004;81(2):384-92.
  • Homan GF, Davies MJ, Norman RJ. The impact of lifestyle factors on reproductive performance in the general population and those undergoing infertility treatment: a review. Human Reproduction Update. 2007;13(3):209-23.
  • Klonoff-Cohen H, Lam-Kruglick P, Gonzalez C. Effects of maternal and paternal alcohol consumption on the success of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer. Fertility and Sterility. 2003;79(2):330-9.

Timing of sex

  • Berglund Scherwitzl E, Linden Hirschberg A, Scherwitzl R. Identification and prediction of the fertile window using Natural Cycles. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2015;Jan 16:1-6.
  • Ecochard R, Duterque O, Leiva R, Bouchard T, Vigil P. Self-identification of the clinical fertile window and the ovulation period. Fertility and Sterility. 2015;103(5):1319-25.e3.
  • Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in collaboration with the Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. Optimizing natural fertility. Fertility and Sterility. 2008;90(Suppl 3):S1-S6.
  • Stanford JB. Revisiting the fertile window.Fertility and Sterility. 2015;103(5):1152-3